This book is a compilation of case studies from different countries and covers contemporary with future prospective for sustainable development of agriculture. The book highlights the real-world as well as future generation situations facing the challenges for the twenty first century will be production of sufficient food and highlights the strengths, weaknesses and opportunities, to meet the needs of fast growing population it is imperative to increase agricultural productivity in an environmentally sustainable manner. Due to imbalanced use of chemical fertilizers and agrochemicals has a considerable negative impact on economy and environmental sustainability of nation, for the sustainable alternative means to solve these problems, the efficient utilization of biological agents have been extensively studied. Naturally existing plant-microbe-environment interactions are utilized in many ways for enhancing plant productivity. A greater understanding of how plants and microbes live together and benefit each other can therefore provide new strategies to improve plant productivity, in most sustainable way. To achieve the objective of sustainable agricultural practices there is a need for understanding both basic and applied aspects of agriculturally important microorganisms. Focus needs to be on transforming agricultural systems from nutrient deficient to nutrient rich soil-plant system. This book is split into two parts, with an aim to provide comprehensive description and highlight a holistic approach. It elucidated various mechanisms of nutrients solubilisation and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Unit-1 in this book explains the importance of soil microbes in sustainable crop production. It contains chapters detailing the role and mechanism of action of soil microbes which enhances the productivity via various bio-chemical and molecular channels. In unit-2 the role of microbes in plant protection is elaborated. With the help of case studies of food crops, multiple ways in which soil microbes help in fighting and preventing plant diseases is explained. With the given content and layout book will be an all-inclusive collection of information, which will be useful for students, academicians, researchers working in the field of rhizospheric mechanisms, agricultural microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy and sustainable agriculture and also for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture.
This three volume book contains the Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Advanced Computing, Networking and Informatics (ICACNI 2017). The book focuses on the recent advancement of the broad areas of advanced computing, networking and informatics. It also includes novel approaches devised by researchers from across the globe. This book brings together academic scientists, professors, research scholars and students to share and disseminate information on knowledge and scientific research works related to computing, networking, and informatics to discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted. The book also promotes translation of basic research into applied investigation and convert applied investigation into practice.
This book discusses the increasing use of contract labour in India that has accompanied attempts to liberalise the economy. After briefly examining Indian labour laws and public policy, it juxtaposes the country's labour market practices with international labour standards. The questions that are raised are then explored through a series of empirical studies investigating the use of contract labour in a variety of industries and locations, manifesting a wide-spectrum of concerns including labour standards, productivity and employment relations. The set of comparative research studies within India are supplemented with a field study from the Shenzhen and Guangzhou industrial regions of South China, which are in an advanced stage of industrial development. The unprecedented inflow of capital into China has captivated many developing countries, including India, which has gone on to mimic similar strategies particularly in terms of labour market deregulation. In this context, a set of crucial questions arise - can enforcing `labour market flexibility' in itself provide the required impetus for a nation's industrial growth? Is the Chinese success in becoming the major destination for foreign direct investments (FDIs) a consequence of a flexible labour regime or is there some other concealed strength to be found in Chinese labour market institutions? In particular it needs to be noted that after double-digit growth for more than 25 consecutive years, China has recognised some of the fallacy of its development path and in 2008 adopted fairly stringent labour laws, which now regulate its labour market. This Chinese trajectory perhaps has lessons for India and other countries that are still struggling on the liberal path. In particular, the Chinese example helps put the Indian field studies in perspective and provides insights into India-specific policy recommendations that could also be useful for the developing world. The book concludes with the observation that where production entails long-term relationships, the interests of both the employer and the workers need to be maintained sustainably. As the title suggests, the book provides takeaways, not only for academics and researchers working in this field but also for lawyers, consultants, politicians, bureaucrats, and policymakers.
This book discusses the perception of disease, healing concepts and the evolution of traditional systems of healing in the Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh, India. The chapters cover a diverse range issues: people and knowledge systems, healing in ancient scriptures, concept of sacredness and faith healing, food as medicament, presumptions about disease, ethno-botanical aspects of medicinal plants, collection and processing of herbs, traditional therapeutic procedures, indigenous Materia medica, etc. The book also discusses the diverse therapeutic procedures followed by Himalayan healers and their significance in the socio-cultural life of Himalayan societies.The World Health Organization defines traditional medicine as wisdom, skills, and practices based on theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, used in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness and maintenance of health. In some Asian and African countries, 80% of the population depends on traditional medicine for primary health care. However, the knowledge of these conventional healing techniques and traditions associated with conveying this knowledge are slowly disappearing. The authors highlight the importance of safeguarding this indigenous knowledge in the cultural milieu of the Himachal Himalayas.This book will be an important resource for researchers in medical anthropology, biology, ethno-biology, ecology, community health, health behavior, psychotherapy, and Himalayan studies.
This book showcases a compilation of case studies presented by scientists, teachers and academics and covers contemporary technologies for combating climate change, including sustainable agricultural management practices and conservation agriculture. It highlights the situations that future generations in the Indian Himalayas will face, and addresses the major challenges for tomorrow's generations in their efforts to ensure sufficient food production for the global population. It also sheds light on the factors that are routinely ignored in connection with agricultural management practices for sustainable food production and risk assessment. Lastly, it illustrates the need to develop a comprehensive master plan for strategic planning, including conservation agriculture practices that address poverty and food security in the wake of climate change impacts.
This volume offers detailed information on the behaviour of various water pollutants, and on the principles and concepts of groundwater flow and transport. It will help readers to understand and execute the planning, supervision, and review of solute transport and groundwater modeling projects. The book also discusses the role and fate of elements that have been identified as major contaminants in surface and subsurface waters, and their adverse effects on ecology and human health. The book explores this theme throughout four sections - a. Understanding Soil-Water Systems, b. Fate and Transport of Pollutants, c. Physico-Chemical Treatment of Wastewater and d. Microbial Techniques Used to Decontaminate Soil-Water Systems. Introducing readers to a range of recent advances concerning the fundamentals of subsurface water treatment, it offers a valuable guide for teachers, researchers, policymakers, and undergraduate and graduate students of hydrology, environmental microbiology, biotechnology and the environmental sciences. It also provides field engineers and industrial practitioners with essential support in the effective remediation and management of polluted sites.
This book describes various aspects of modern microbiology including microbial enzymes, secondary metabolites, next-generation sequencing, microbial-based biopesticides, microbial-based cancer therapies, biodiesel, and microbial products from fermentation, biodegradation, bioremediation and wastewater treatment. Further, it explains how and why microbes play an important role in preserving the welfare of living beings and the environment. Many bacteria play a significant part in cleaning our environment by detoxifying various xenobiotic compounds, while several microbes produce secondary metabolites that are useful to human beings. The book is divided into 15 chapters that cover various aspects of microorganism-based biotechnology, including recent methodologies such as advanced molecular techniques, as well developments in classical microbiological techniques. The authors also explain how the latest and classical techniques are being used in modern-day microbial biotechnology. All chapters were written by experts from prominent universities, research laboratories, and institutes around the globe. Above all, they focus on recent advances in microbial technology that promote the welfare of living beings and the environment.
Xenobiotic compounds including pesticides, nitrophenols, pyridine, polycyclic aromatic compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls are widely spread in environment due to anthropogenic activities. Most of them are highly toxic to living beings due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Therefore, the removal of these compounds from environment is an essential step for environmental sustainability. Microbial remediation has emerged as an effective technology for degradation of these xenobiotic compounds as microorganisms have unique ability to utilize these compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. The primary goal of this book is to provide detailed information of microbial degradation of many xenobiotic compounds in various microorganisms.
This book presents solutions to address water security in rapidly urbanizing cities, and explores the new paradigms of water security in changing contexts. Highlighting the latest developments in water research, changes in water policy, and current discourses on water security, the book also provides information and tools for local stakeholders, water managers, and policymakers to build the capacity for sustainable water governance. The book discusses a wide range of sustainable solutions and their implementation to ensure that the balance between water supply and demand remains sustainable in the long term, with a focus on local solutions to build capacity and developing policy awareness for a wide range of stakeholders. As the concept of urban water security in changing contexts is open to multiple interpretations, the authors set out various approaches.
Providing an overview of the changing perspectives of urban water security in different contexts, the book is based on findings of the Asia-Pacific Network water security project at the United Nations University, Tokyo, as well as the authors' current research-based at Pokhara University, Nepal, Hosei University, Tokyo, Institute for the Global Environmental Strategies, Japan and the Australian National University, Australia. The book also includes the views of international authorities (such as water experts) on the subject. The solutions are complemented by analysis of case studies of various localized sustainable solutions at different scales.
The book is a valuable resource for water professionals and policymakers around the globe, academics, teachers working in water-related areas, NGOs, think thanks, water research institutes, donor organizations, and international and local water utility services.
Rampant industrialization has caused high levels of contamination by various toxic chemicals in our water bodies, which is a matter of concern in terms of ecosystems, as well as human and animal health. Polluted wastewater can contaminate drinking water and is also is a causal factor for bio-magnification of heavy metals into our food cycle. In the last decade, several methodologies have been adopted to clean the wastewaters, and among these, microbial remediation has emerged as an effective technology. Several variants of microbial technologies have been developed for wastewater treatment and biodegradation specific to the industry, type of waste and toxicity of the chemicals.
This book describes the recent advances in microbial degradation and microbial remediation of various xenobiotic compounds in soil and wastewater. It also explains various modern microbial technologies for biodegradation and wastewater treatment. It covers various microbial technologies for wastewater treatment, biodegradation, bioremediation and solid waste management. Gathering contributions from leading international it focuses on the status quo in industrial wastewater treatment and its biodegradation.
The book is intended for researchers in the field of industrial wastewater, students of environmental sciences and practitioners in water pollution abatement.