In any ecosystem, plant and microbe interaction is inevitable. They not only co-exist but also support each other's survival and provide sustenance in stressful environments. Agro-ecosystems in many regions around the globe are affected by high temperatures, soil salinity/alkalinity, low pH and metal toxicity. High salinity and severe draught are other major constraints affecting agricultural practices and also plants in the wild. A major limiting factor affecting global agricultural productivity is environmental stresses. Apart from decreasing yield, they also have a devastating impact on plant growth. Plants battle with various kind of stresses with the help of symbiotic associations with the rhizospheric microbes. Naturally occuring plant-microbe interactions facilitate the survival of plants under these stressful conditions.The rhizosphere consists of several groups of microbes, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is one such group of microbes that assists plants in coping with multiple stresses and also promote plant growth. These efficient microbes support the stress physiology of the plants and can be extremely useful in solving agricultural as well food- security problems.This book provides a detailed, holistic description of plant and microbe interaction. It elucidates various mechanisms of nutrient management, stress tolerance and enhanced crop productivity in the rhizosphere, discussing The rhizospheric flora and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Divided into two volumes, the book addresses fundamentals, applications as well as research trends and new prospects for agricultural sustainability. Volume 1: Stress Management and Agricultural Sustainability, includes chapters offering a broad overview of plant stress management with the help of microbes. It also highlights the contribution of enzymatic and molecular events occurring in the rhizosphere due to plant microbe interactions, which in turn help in the biological control of plant disease and pest attacks. Various examples of plant microbe interaction in rhizospheric soil are elaborated to facilitate the development of efficient indigenous microbial consortia to enhance food and nutritional security. Providing a comprehensive information source on microbes and their role in agricultural and soil sustainability, this timely research book is of particular interest to students, academics and researchers working in the fields of microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy, and the plant protection sciences, as well as for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture.
This book is a compilation of case studies from different countries and covers contemporary with future prospective for sustainable development of agriculture. The book highlights the real-world as well as future generation situations facing the challenges for the twenty first century will be production of sufficient food and highlights the strengths, weaknesses and opportunities, to meet the needs of fast growing population it is imperative to increase agricultural productivity in an environmentally sustainable manner. Due to imbalanced use of chemical fertilizers and agrochemicals has a considerable negative impact on economy and environmental sustainability of nation, for the sustainable alternative means to solve these problems, the efficient utilization of biological agents have been extensively studied. Naturally existing plant-microbe-environment interactions are utilized in many ways for enhancing plant productivity. A greater understanding of how plants and microbes live together and benefit each other can therefore provide new strategies to improve plant productivity, in most sustainable way. To achieve the objective of sustainable agricultural practices there is a need for understanding both basic and applied aspects of agriculturally important microorganisms. Focus needs to be on transforming agricultural systems from nutrient deficient to nutrient rich soil-plant system. This book is split into two parts, with an aim to provide comprehensive description and highlight a holistic approach. It elucidated various mechanisms of nutrients solubilisation and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Unit-1 in this book explains the importance of soil microbes in sustainable crop production. It contains chapters detailing the role and mechanism of action of soil microbes which enhances the productivity via various bio-chemical and molecular channels. In unit-2 the role of microbes in plant protection is elaborated. With the help of case studies of food crops, multiple ways in which soil microbes help in fighting and preventing plant diseases is explained. With the given content and layout book will be an all-inclusive collection of information, which will be useful for students, academicians, researchers working in the field of rhizospheric mechanisms, agricultural microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy and sustainable agriculture and also for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture.
This book showcases a compilation of case studies presented by scientists, teachers and academics and covers contemporary technologies for combating climate change, including sustainable agricultural management practices and conservation agriculture. It highlights the situations that future generations in the Indian Himalayas will face, and addresses the major challenges for tomorrow's generations in their efforts to ensure sufficient food production for the global population. It also sheds light on the factors that are routinely ignored in connection with agricultural management practices for sustainable food production and risk assessment. Lastly, it illustrates the need to develop a comprehensive master plan for strategic planning, including conservation agriculture practices that address poverty and food security in the wake of climate change impacts.
The potassium solubilizing microorganisms (KSMs) are a rhizospheric microorganism which solubilizes the insoluble potassium (K) to soluble forms of K for plant growth and yield. K-solubilization is carried out by a large number of saprophytic bacteria (Bacillus mucilaginosus, B. edaphicus, B. circulans, Acidothiobacillus ferrooxidans, Paenibacillus spp.) and fungal strains (Aspergillus spp. and Aspergillus terreus). Major amounts of K containing minerals (muscovite, orthoclase, biotite, feldspar, illite, mica) are present in the soil as a fixed form which is not directly taken up by the plant.
Nowadays most of the farmers use injudicious application of chemical fertilizers for achieving maximum productivity. However, the KSMs are most important microorganisms for solubilizing fixed form of K in soil system. The KSMs are an indigenous rhizospheric microorganism which show effective interaction between soil-plant systems. The main mechanism of KSMs is acidolysis, chelation, exchange reactions, complexolysis and production of organic acid. According to the literature, currently negligible use of potassium fertilizer as chemical form has been recorded in agriculture for enhancing crop yield. Most of the farmers use only nitrogen and phosphorus and not the K fertilizer due to unawareness that the problem of K deficiency occurs in rhizospheric soils. The K fertilizer is also costly as compared to other chemical fertilizers.
To meet the food security needs of the 21st century, this book focuses on ecofriendly and sustainable production technologies based on plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). It is estimated that the global population could increase to 9 billion by 2050. Further, the amount of land devoted to farming has decreased. Soil is a living entity, and is not only a valuable natural resource for agricultural and food security, but also for the preservation of all life processes. Agricultural productivity rests on the foundation of microbial diversity in the soil, and in recent years, PGPR have emerged as an important and promising tool for sustainable agriculture.The injudicious use of agrochemicals by farmers has created a range of negative impacts, not only threatening the environment, but also destroying useful microorganisms in the soil. The efficient use of PGPR reduces the need for these chemicals while simultaneously lowering production costs. In turn, increased yields could provide a more favourable environment and encourage sustainability. This book assesses the impacts of PGPR on crops, environmental and socio-economic sustainability, and demonstrates these ecofriendly technologies' three critical advantages, namely (a) enhanced crop productivity, (b) reduced application of agrochemicals, and (c) increased incomes for farmers. Besides offering an economically attractive and ecologically sound means of augmenting the nutrient supply and combatting soil-borne pathogens, PGPR play an important part in boosting soil fertility, bioremediation and stress management for the development of ecofriendly and sustainable agriculture.